Diseases of the thymus

The thymus is a gland located in front of the trachea. Its primary role is during growth when it provides the body with immune cells. It subsequently has no function and decreases in volume until disappearing almost completely in adulthood.

Myasthenia, a disease associated with the thymus, is a neurological disorder that prevents the respiratory muscles from functioning.

Thoracic trauma

Thoracic trauma is an injury to the chest wall and organs inside the rib cage following a collision, accident or physical exertion. It can be penetrating (open) or internal (closed) and cause injuries to several organs: the heart, great vessels, lungs, esophagus, trachea, etc. In cases of chest trauma, life-threatening injuries are treated first.

Chest deformities

These deformities vary in severity and may be present at birth or occur during growth. There are essentially two kinds of chest deformity:  pectus excavatum (hollow chest) and pectus carinatum (protruding chest). Usually, the resulting discomfort or disability is primarily aesthetic and psychological.

Mediastinal diseases

The mediastinum is the central part of the rib cage, located between the two lungs. It is divided into three sections: the posterior, middle and anterior mediastinum. It includes the heart, great vessels, esophagus and trachea, as well as the thymus.

Lung metastases

Primary tumors are different from secondary tumors (metastases). A primary tumor is the starting point of the cancer. Metastases are tumors that have spread to other organs from the primary tumor. Therefore, a lung metastasis is a cancer that comes from another part of the body.


Pulmonary emphysema is characterized by destruction of the lung tissue and irreversible dilation of the lungs, which lose their elasticity. It is similar to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the world's most common non-communicable diseases.

Learn more: Website of the Pulmonology Division.